All You Want to Know : Methods of Cooking
The choice of basic cooking preparation is not a problem for who knows its merchandises and ingredients. For example: a piece of veal’s hough can be roasted or boiled, but never pan-fried or grilled. In the kitchen there is basically fourteen methods of preparation; Blanching Poaching Boiling Steam cooking Frying Pan frying (fast) Grilling Gratinating Oven cooking Roasting Braising Glazing Pan sweating Sweating Due to constant technical progresses each professional should always be in touch with the new trends. To cook food we have to transmit heat through: Water at a temperature between 65 to 100º Centigrade Steam at a temperature between 100º to 120º Centigrade Hot air at a temperature reaching until 280º Centigrade Fat (frying) at a temperature between 130º C between 130º to 180º Centigrade. Little fat (pan-frying) at a temperature reaching 180º Centigrade. Blanching Short pre-cooking for divers reasons Take off heavy flavour of certain vegetables Take off bone’s impurity Shortening cooking time How to blanch? Blanch foodstuff in salted boiling water Blanch foodstuff in cold or hot water at the beginning of cooking process Blanch in frying oil at a temperature of about 130º centigrade Blanch by steaming or sweating with steam Poaching A soft preparation (temperature between 65º and 80º Centigrade). Only tender aliment should be treated this way. How to poach? In little liquid (wine or stock) In a lot of liquid (stock or water) In the Bain Marie, stirring (béarnaise) In the Bain Marie, not stirring In the new steaming device with temperature adjusting Boiling Cooking under boiling point (i.e. meat) or to boiling point (i.e. pastas) How to boil? Just under boiling point Under boiling point Starting with cold liquid Starting with hot liquid Covered Uncovered Steam cooking Technical progress had tremendously influenced this type of cooking. Actually we can chose between cooking pot and inside grill, as used by our grand mothers, or the new pressure steamer, combo-steamer, or pressure cooker for large quantity. How to Cook with steam? With pressure Without pressure With water steam With dry steam Vacuum Frying To fry, use only fats and oils with high combustion point Fry only small and dry quantities For frying breaded aliment in flower, egg or frying dough - shake excess. Always drain fat or oil excess from food – never cover How to fry? At constant temperature Augmenting temperature Direct cooking (small food pieces) Pre-cooking at about 30º C (bigger pieces) Pan frying Only for food item with delicate fibres (meat marble), smaller or tender structures. How to pan-fry? In a little pre-heated fat In a pan In a casserole On the grill Grilling Take particular attention to heat level adequate to each piece! Bigger piece of meat –fast and high intensity grilling and sizzling. When pores are closed, it is recommended to slow down heat intensity, to allow cooking to the core of the piece. How to grill? Grill directly marinated food item. On charcoal grill On electric grill On gas grill In a pan grill Gratinating Higher temperature needed (about 280º C). For few aliment (fine slices of fish, fine slices of vegetable) it will be the complete cooking process, otherwise pre-cook. To obtain a nice colour and a round flavour, we are using the following ingredients: cheese, breadcrumb, creme, Sauce Hollandaise) sugar (for desserts). How to gratinate? Under salamander at high temperature In the oven at high temperature from the top Oven cooking To cook in the oven it is not necessary to add fat or liquid (except sometimes for cooking trays, which will facilitate removing food item). Only dry heat will influence cooking. How to oven cook? Conventionally in the oven, on a plaque, directly on the grill or in mould (glass, metal, or earthenware) In hot air pulsated oven, on special plaques In steam combo-cooker Roasting To start with, always at high temperature to form a crust and seal pores. Continue roasting at lower temperature, basting constantly with fat. Attention: a) do not add liquid during roasting. b) Let the roast repose at least 20 minutes, before slicing. How to roast? On a spit, basting constantly with fat In the oven, basting few times In hot air oven, basting few times Braising Braising is one of the most delicate preparation method. Meats pieces poor in fat will be “larded” before braising to keep aroma and taste. Braising is convenient for red meat, fish, vegetable and poultry. White meat and poultry will be glazed (see glazing). All braised items will be “wetted” to ¼ or 1/3 of its height and cooked in the oven, covered. How to braise? First sizzle well red meat (to close pores), add vegetable or tomatoes or wet with red wine. Cover the piece until ¼ of its height with stock, cook in oven - wetting often - Cover. For fish use a “matignon”. Then put the fish on a buttered holed tray (that will allow better handling of cooked fish). We will “wet” the fish with white wine and fish stock to a maximum of 1/3 of its height. Cook in the oven, covered and “wetting” constantly. For vegetable (Belgium endive, fennel, etc) use a “matignon” or onions, or lard (i.e. for red cabbage) lay vegetable on top (sometime blanched) “wet” to 1/3 of white veal stock and cook in the oven, covered. For white and clear vegetable it is recommended to cover with buttered parchment paper or wax paper to avoid colour alteration. Glazing We can glaze vegetables, poultry or white meat. How to glaze? Sizzle well white meat and poultry, roasting at the same time a “mirepoix”, deglaze with white wine and “wet” with according stock until 1/6 of its height. Cook covered in the oven, “wetting” often. Before the end of the cooking process, take off cover and “wet” with reduced stock. That will give a glaze to the food item, thus the name “glazed”. Vegetable will be first steamed, then glazed at the end of cooking process with a mix of juice and reduced adequate stock. Pan sweating (poeler) Pan sweating is a combination between sweating and roasting. For this characteristic, only soft and tender piece of meat will be processed this way. Cooking will start covered, in the oven at a temperature of about 150º C. At the end of cooking process, temperature will be brought at about 180º C, cover will be taken away. That will give the piece of meat its nice brownish colour. How to pan sweat? With little fat and no other liquid, covered in the oven at a 150º C to start, wetting constantly with its own juice. Take off cover at the end of cooking process and bring temperature to 180º C, to give the piece of meat its brownish colour. Sweating For Vegetables, meat and mushroom. How to sweat? Mix the ingredient to sweat with fat substance, if necessary onion (goulash) and other vegetables. Add adequate liquid (stock, wine) and sweat slowly in a covered pan. Use only adequate recipients with adequate covers.
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